Over the last two decades interstitial lung disease, of which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most diagnosed form, has become the most frequent indication for LTx.The objectives of our study were: to assess temporal trends in the incidence of LTx in Spain from 2016 to 2020 among subjects suffering or not from IPF; to describe and compare clinical characteristics, complications of LTx and post-transplant infections of these two populations, to analyze temporal trends in the length in-hospital mortality (IHM) in both groups.

METHODS: A retrospective, population-based observational study was conducted using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. The study period runs from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2020

RESULTS: We identified 1,777 admissions for LTx in Spain; 573 of them (32.25%) were performed in patients with IPF (50,79% were single and the remaining bilateral LTx). The number of single LTx decreased among patients with IPF between 2016 and 2020 (68 to 35), while that of bilaterals increased (28 to 86).Within the IPF group, there were more and older men than in the non-IPF group (24.61% vs 40.86%; p<0.001), with an average difference of 7 years (58.09 9.03 vs. 51.35 14.22, p<0.001).IHM in patients with IPF was higher in single LTx (22,86%), in women (9,52%) and in patients with any complications of lung transplant (17,46%)

CONCLUSION: Patients with IPF account for almost a third of all LTx. In both groups of patients, the number of bilateral transplants increased, especially in the non-IPF group. In the group of patients with IPF there were more men and older. There were not significant differences in complications or IHM between both groups